Keep a critical perspective on the data that exchanges are providing you: technical analysis is only as good as the data it’s analyzing. When looking at volume numbers, for example, ask yourself: What’s the source of this information? Has it been validated? Could other factors be skewing the number? Beyond just looking at the numbers, it’s important to understand the meaning of those numbers: what they imply, and what biases could be influencing them.

As you know, the focus of this guide is all about trading cryptocurrencies, but there are other ways to get a hand in the pot. Some people choose to buy a cryptocurrency and forget about it, much like you would do with some stock in say, Amazon. Other’s are actually investing through the stock market via the Bitcoin Investment Trust (GBTC). If you are a firm believer in the future of Bitcoin, both are perfectly fine ways to go about it.

Understanding support and resistance are pretty handy in the trading world, not only with forex, stocks, and commodities but also with the new kid on the block – cryptocurrencies. For example, when prior resistance turns into new support, we often encounter splendid buying opportunities in a strong uptrend. Check this space for a powerful support & resistance cryptocurrency strategy coming soon!

TIP: A good first foray into cryptocurrency investing is the obvious, buying a major cryptocurrency like Bitcoin. After that, you’ll probably want to trade USD for crypto on an exchange like GDAX. Once you have done that, you could try trading BTC and ETH for other cryptocurrencies. Trading “crypto pairs” can be rewarding, but it is more complex and often more risky than just buying a single cryptocurrency as an investment.
Technical analysis: . AUGUR/ETHEREUM is in a range bound and the beginning of uptrend is expected. . The price is below the 21-Day WEMA which acts as a dynamic resistance. . The RSI is at 41. Trading suggestion: . There is a possibility of temporary retracement to suggested support zone (0.05776361 to 0.05223350). if so, traders can set orders based on Price ...
For example, there are cryptocurrencies, such as Litecoin, with the same goal as Bitcoin. In this case, it would be a good idea to compare its market capitalization with Bitcoin. This site ranks coins by market cap. Always be sure to check there when evaluating a new coin. If you notice a large shift in market cap on a certain date, it may be worth it to check for any news that day to see what may have caused it.
Don’t go downloading random wallets or clicking on random links, but do accept that you have to share information with exchanges. There is some malware out there, and you need to do research and be careful. However, for all you want to protect your privacy, you have to share your info with exchanges you want to use. So share what you have to and download apps as needed, but be careful and do research.
Need a one-stop shop for all your crypto trading requirements? You can place your bet on Bitfinex (BFX). Bitfinex is a popular cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows you to trade conveniently and effectively. Having its headquarters in Hong Kong, Bitfinex has expanded to a great level since its inception in the year 2012. As a reliable source of cryptocurrency, Bitfinex has its daily trading volumes with a net worth of around USD 1 billion.
Know when to take a loss. Nothing is less fun than taking a loss, but if you are going short in BTC and you haven’t set a stop, sometimes it makes more sense to take a loss and wait for a better price than it does to suddenly start going long. The best way to know when to hold ’em and or fold ’em is some basic TA on longer term charts (I will use things like MACD on 6hr – 12hr – 1 day candles to confirm trends) paired with unwavering discipline.
From a trader’s perspective Smith also discussed key BTC prices, namely the $5,800 support level and the $6,800 resistance level, noting that the recent lows of bitcoin are practically the same ones that were touched in April and February, earlier this year. Curiously, these were the same points BTC was trading at last October when bitcoin futures were announced and the price of the world’s most popular virtual currency skyrocketed.
While Ethereum focuses on dapps and Ripple on ultra-fast finances, Monero focuses on – privacy! This technology actually uses cryptography to protect all incoming and outgoing addresses, as well as the transmitted amounts. Monero is an all-in-one solution for all privacy enthusiasts, and as such, it holds tremendous potential for great success in the crypto world. Monero is my favourite coin.
Identifying stop loss levels to minimize losses:  In the order book we identify the points of support that we also analyzed before. It is likely that being supportive, massive demand (a “wall” of buyers) is present around those spots. This is the best zone to place the stop loss command, although it should be placed a little lower than the high demand zone. They will only get to our command if the sellers manage to lower the price and the “wall” of buyers breaks. The “wall” of buyers works as a sort of protection level for our command.
If your focus lies in crypto-to-crypto trading, Binance is the option you can go ahead with. Binance is ranked as one of the most popular cryptocurrency exchanges worldwide. Being natively evolved from China, it offers its features and functionality to traders worldwide. On the top of this, it’ll also provide you with impressive offerings along with an extremely low trading fee. Though the Binance platform hasn’t been too old in the field of exchanges, it has taken over and gained a rapid growth by getting listed in the top 10 cryptocurrency exchange platforms of current times. Binance holds a huge selection of altcoins with Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Tether pairing.

Cashaa is more than it's CAS Token cryptocoin. It's a centralized, completely free cryptocurrency exchange where users can exchange their online coinage into any other cryptocoin quickly and easily. Take a look at their site and you will see that the CAS Token is backed by a dynamic exchange economy that means it has massive long-term potential as an investment - because it's a cryptocoin that works with competing currencies instead of trying to beat them.


Disclaimer: Trading carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. Before deciding to invest you should carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience, and risk appetite. The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss of some or all of your initial investment and therefore you should not invest money that you cannot afford to lose. You should be aware of all the risks associated with foreign exchange trading, and seek advice from an independent financial advisor if you have any doubts.

Why is it necessary to do this way? When you go shopping, you try to find the best prices looking for discount programs, bonus campaigns and other ways to minimize your expenses. When dealing with crypto trading, you have no need to compare prices in different places as the cost is on the chart already. All you need is to understand whether this price is suitable for you or not.


Cryptocurrency exchanges are websites where you can buy, sell or exchange cryptocurrencies for other digital currency or traditional currency like US dollars or Euro. For those that want to trade professionally and have access to fancy trading tools, you will likely need to use an exchange that requires you to verify your ID and open an account. If you just want to make the occasional, straightforward trade, there are also platforms that you can use that do not require an account.

What are Confirmations? How to Time the Bottom of a Market Super Simple Bitcoin Explanation What Does “HODL” Mean? The Top Cryptocurrencies That Aren’t Bitcoin The Ethereum Classic Investment Trust (ETCG) Explained How to Short Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies What is “Alt Season?” How to Buy Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies (Simple) What are Sats?

What makes the platform appealing is the easy process of opening an account and getting verified. It also provides users with the options of dealing in ample amount of crypto pairs with ultra-security features. Another noteworthy point here is that the platform offers 15+ free & automatically generated digital wallets as well as a variety of payment and withdrawal methods including cards, e-wallets, wire, and crypto-wallets.

Back in the dotcom era many people made millions piling risk on risk as the market boomed then bubbled. When the bubble burst they lost everything. You must always look to spread your risk even when or especially when things are going great. Keeping all your money on the table and piling it up on each play will in the end break your bank. A lot of investors in crypto are feeling that pain right now and the “HODL” (a bitcoin community term referring to holding a cryptocurrency rather than selling it) incantation will not make them whole anytime soon.

Simply, the OBV is a remarkable technical indicator that can show us if the real money is really buying Bitcoin or quite the contrary they are selling. What we want to see when Bitcoin is failing to break above a resistance level or a swing high and the Ethereum already broke is for the OBV to not only increase in the direction of the trend, but to also move beyond the level it was when Bitcoin was trading previously at this resistance level (see figure below). Here is how to identify the right swing to boost your profit.
Speaking to CNBC, the crypto trader claimed that other coins might have been overhyped as the progress in distributed ledger technology is slower than people expected. Smith said that, “They got really excited about all these other tokens and use cases. And all of the sudden you saw all of these smaller tokens, as people got excited about them, massively outperform. We got way ahead of ourselves.“
Cheap fees and fast exchanges. For each trade, the exchange platform you’re using will take a small percentage as commission for the service it’s providing. This is inevitable. Where cryptocurrency trades differ from their fiat currency equivalent is in the size of this fee. Because the fees for transferring cryptocurrencies (typically via wallet payments) are cheaper than credit card and bank transfer fees, cryptocurrency-trading fees are cheaper than forex-trading fees.
As mentioned above, get ready for tracking and research. If you want to be successful, track the latest cryptocurrency news, ranking and key indicators daily. Join the discussion threads on Reddit and Telegram. And don’t be afraid to ask fellow traders questions. If you look at those discussion threads, you will see that it is a very engaged and helpful community. This will help you to make smarter decisions. But don’t do the FOMO trade (Fear Of Missing Out). Don’t be caught in the fear of missing out the next big opportunity in the crypto space.
BitForex has a prime goal to accomplish the highest return from the activity on the foreign currency exchange (Forex) and cryptocurrency exchange markets. The platform is mainly for those who would like to venture into the world of online forex trading and cryptocurrency trading through modern cloud mining platform. In addition, the platform offers affordable and safe investments. With a team that works tirelessly, they ensure that each client gets the attention and support he or she deserves to reach great success and growth throughout their
"People always think they are going to go in and buy when it's the dip," he says. "Say bitcoin is trading at $10,000, then a lot of selling occurs and causes panic and some investors reenter at $7,000. Then bitcoin bounces at $8,000, but goes back down to $6,000 and people buy back in thinking it's going back up and they are making money hand over fist."

Similar to Bitterex, Poloniex is also a crypto-only exchange which will allow you to go ahead with your trading by depositing Tether dollars. The fee charges for this crypto exchange depends upon your choice (whether you are a maker or taker) and can be 0.15% to 0.25% accordingly. Traders looking for a variety of altcoins can check Poloniex for their requirements. Although you’ll get an intuitive mobile-friendly website to place your trade; there are no options in terms of mobile applications.
Investing isn’t poker or rather it should not be a gambling game. If you go all in with investing in an asset or two, you are almost certain to lose everything, it is just a law of probabilities. Diversify. Do not believe anyone who tells you otherwise, ever. Of course this new generation’s first instinct is to go all in and then when a correction or crash sets in, they lose everything. They then go away and never come back. It’s a never-ending cycle.
Swing Trading Strategy – Swing trading is somewhere in the middle of Day Trading and Trend Trading. This is because Day Trading is holding an asset from a couple of seconds to a few hours but never more than a day. Trend Trading, on the other hand, is when the trader looks for a longer timetable and keeps the asset between weeks to months. Swing traders hold an asset for a couple of days up to a few weeks.
Security Key – I recommend taking this key, and saving it in three places. Write it down and store it in a book or journal, bury it in your email, and take a picture and lock it behind a vault-app (I like to use Keep Safe – it’s free and secure). This ensures that you have mutliple means of accesing this important key. In case you get locked out of your account, or lose your phone, this is the only way to get into your Binance account. Heed my advice. This is like crypto-insurance, and you never need insurance until you fucking NEED insurance. Take the steps, and make sure you do it right – you won’t regret it.
No one actually knows how long this whole crypto thing will last but instead of losing sleep at night constantly checking token prices which have zero fundamentals behind them, I’d much rather invest in a real business that will make money whether Bitcoin prices go up or down. (Full disclosure: To satisfy my own curiosity, I do own a tiny amount of Bitcoin which won’t make me rich nor will it affect me if the whole space goes to zero).

Then there are the fundamental strategies. Some people say that fundamentals are the valuation of crypto, but it is challenging to value a cryptocurrency as there is no chart giving the earnings and the assets to derive a valuation from. Cryptocurrency is all about speculation, with one guy saying it’s worth a high price that reaches into the stratosphere while another says it’s worth squat.


NEO: Apart from being a cryptocurrency, NEO is known for its niche smart contract feature just like Ethereum’s. Smart Economy, Digital Assets Storage and Exchange Automation are achieved through Neo’s smart contract. And coming from China, if it gets to receive the welcoming use that the Chinese always give to their startups, it’s bound to make it big in the industry. It also ensures digital identity anonymity and achieves consensus through the Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance


BitForex is an investment fund established in 2015. So far, it has accomplished excellent results. With experienced, skilled traders and financial experts in the company, the investment fund has realized success. Throughout their careers, each of them has held high-profile investment management positions, which has sharpened their skills and experience. Besides, their employees are motivated and experienced in various areas including computer technology, marketing, trading, law, and management. As such, they are ready to provide relevant services. The profits generated from the company are shared among fund, private investors, and clients.
How often will you buy or sell? Some people want to be day traders, but we’ve shown that holding could be the best bet. The general rule of thumb is that the longer of a time horizon you plan on holding for the less risk you incur. This rule carries over into the realm of cryptocurrency from stock investing. However, here may be times to simply cut and run. Declines due to unforeseen structural issues are an indicator to cut losses and sell out.
Risk Warning: Trading forex, cryptocurrencies, indices, and commodities are potentially high risk and may not be suitable for all investors. The high level of leverage can work both for and against traders. Before any investment in forex, cryptocurrencies, indices, and commodities you need to carefully consider your targets, previous experience, and risk level. Trading may result in the loss of your money, therefore, you should not invest capital that you cannot afford to lose.
It’s even crazier that traditional strategies that are used in valuing stocks don’t exactly apply to the crypto market. For instance, when valuing stocks, one can do a fundamental analysis by using ratios such as the price to earnings ratio P/E, debt ratios among others. These are concepts that don’t apply to the crypto markets. So can you value cryptos and make money in this highly volatile, but lucrative market? The answer is YES. Here are 4 tips on how to do so.
NullTX stands for Null Transaction. If you use Bitcoin regularly, at some point in time you encountered some sort of anomaly. Whether it be a null transaction, low fee, inputting the wrong address, or even had your wallet hacked. NullTX's mission is to be the #1 information source when it comes to solving your cryptocurrency problems. We provide the latest news in crypto along with educational articles regarding Bitcoin, Ethereum and much much more.
Figure out if you want to go long or short. Are you going short with every penny you have to invest, or are you going to go long with some and short with some? Long-term investors will pay a lower tax rate if they can hold for over 12 months, but as a trade-off, they WILL have to sit through corrections (likely seeing their balance go down 50% plus on paper as often as they see it go up). Short-term investors can avoid corrections if they are nimble, but they’ll owe taxes on the profits from each trade they do along the way (see: how taxes work with cryptocurrency to understand how the long term and short term capital gains tax work with cryptocurrency).
So how do you know if you should invest in an ICO? It’s not about science, it is important to pay attention to the level of seriousness of the project and its team. Look for the project’s website (does it look like a child has built it during computer school?), Who is the team behind the project – Are they hiding behind nicknames or proudly present themselves on their website? Pay attention to the Bitcointalk thread (does it exist at all?) and how the team members respond to technical questions. Is there a large community behind the project? Expect to see a Slack gathering its community. Watch out the amount raised: A project which had raised too little will probably will not be able to develop over time, a project which had raised huge amount – there won’t be enough investors left out there to buy coins on exchanges. And most importantly is risk management. Never put all eggs in one basket and invest too much of your portfolio in one ICO.

You could try this instead: Buy and sell on multiple exchanges; then, when you see those moments of indecision in the market, buy more of the cryptocurrency on the exchange with the lowest price, while simultaneously selling some on the exchange with the highest price. That way, your risk is mitigated: if the price rises, you’ve made money, and if it drops, you can buy back in at the lower price.
With the KuCoin exchange, you’ll also get an is an easy, hassle-free experience along with different popular as well as rare cryptocurrencies such as DragonChain, IOTA, etc. If mobile apps are your preference, you can trade on KuCoin easily as it has apps for both Android and iOS. In order to go ahead with trading in KuCoin, you can deposit any crypto initially and start immediately. In terms of fee, KuCoin also takes 0.1% per transaction, half of which can be taken by you through the unique dividend system offered by the exchange.

In a permanent-growth cryptocurrency market, CryptoLux is permanently re-inventing and improving itself with clients from over 23 countries and a sold-out Initial Coin Offering. Our state-of-art trading platform is aiming at bringing simplicity in a world of ambiguity and uncertainty, by teaching our clients how to simply trade and gain considerable profits out of their Crypto investments.


Kryll offers functional blocks that can help you. One of them, Market Trends, provides market information including price fluctuations, demand versus supply analysis, machine learning based market predictions and other options. In your strategy you can also include your preferable trading actions, such as buying, selling, splitting amounts into subsets, and many others.

Now, about mean reversion. When looking back at charts for cryptocurrency trading from the times gone by, most of the plays have been in the momentum category. If we have the condition for mean reversion with a range-bound environment, one should be very cautious when we have momentum. If everyone else is buying and you’re trying to sell you are going to get run over as if standing on the tracks in front of a freight train.


BitForex has a prime goal to accomplish the highest return from the activity on the foreign currency exchange (Forex) and cryptocurrency exchange markets. The platform is mainly for those who would like to venture into the world of online forex trading and cryptocurrency trading through modern cloud mining platform. In addition, the platform offers affordable and safe investments. With a team that works tirelessly, they ensure that each client gets the attention and support he or she deserves to reach great success and growth throughout their
ACTION: Go out and find a few other people that trade, find people you trust. Start a group chat on Facebook messenger — or on whatever platform you prefer. Each of you should research 2–3 credible sources to begin following and then delegate the sources equally. Each day your team should study their respective sources and relay only the necessary information to the group, focus only on information that is crucial for advising trading decisions.
Watch out for scams. There are a few different scams in the crypto world. Anything that isn’t buying a coin with a good reputation is a big risk. Learn more about scams. In short, be super careful about anything that promises free coins, sick returns, or wants you to lend your coins. Buy the top coins using a careful strategy and ignore all the sites promising you they can outperform the market if only you give them X, Y, and Z.
I see price plummets and sky rockets and I’m tapping “please please please!!!” Quietly screaming into the phone HURRY THE FUCK UP!!!! But there is no response or freeze and lag. It happened on my Windows laptop last night and now Android. I am beside myself with frustration! And the charts do NOT match the market price for longer than a minute after I refresh the damned thing. And taking the time to do that means missing the buy/sell scroll. Everyone craps on Poloniex, but the few bucks I have over there can get traded in a timely manner if I use the buy/sell scroll instead of making my own offers.
Known for handling one of the largest Bitcoin volumes out of all the crypto exchanges globally, Bittrex allows you to decide the trading rates with a service fee of around 0.25%. Moreover, a lot of your time will be saved as the verification process in Bittrex is pretty fast which allows you to start the trading process without any major halt. The platform supports two types of accounts namely, Basic and Advanced with withdrawal funds up to 3 BTC/day to 100 BTC/day, respectively.
Bitcoin seemed to be heading for its demise last night before it broke back above resistance and retested the channel bottom trendline. We do have a trendline (red), which has been supporting this recent rise back up after the big drop and as long as we stay above it, bulls can remain hopeful. This pop has caused MACD to crossover bullish and turned the histo ...
The motivation for the investors is that the token will be traded from day one on the exchanges and would yield a nice profit to the ICO participants. In recent years, there have been many successful ICOs, both the project itself and especially in measuring the yield for investors. Coins doubled, or tripled, their value and much more in relation to their value on the crowd sale. Augur’s preliminary crowd-sale (we reported on it previously here) yielded investors a phenomenal 1,000% for their investment. Okay, but what’s the catch here? Not all the projects benefit their investors. Many ICOs proved to be complete scams, not only were they not being traded at all but some projects disappeared with the money and we have not heard from them right up to this day.
So it comes as no surprise that this new generation are exhibiting all the same traits and mistakes that sucked the previous generation of new investors and generations before them through the financial wood chipper. Now a funny event in the last few days made me think running over some classic errors of judgement for this new generation might have some benefit.
Active traders looking to speculate on Bitcoin over the short or medium term may find that trading CFD/derivatives on Bitcoin using an online forex broker will provide them with 24hour trading, potentially lower margin, and the ability to go either long or short. Because of counter-party risk, choosing a broker is just as important as finding one with the best trading tools or commission rates.
AvaTrade offers phone support and allows deposits and withdrawals through multiple avenues such as credit/debit card, wire transfer, e-payments, etc. The firm claims one-click functionality for buying Bitcoin or Bitcoin cash on its MT4 platform. Meanwhile, Plus500 does not have phone support, and instead, services clients through live chat and e-mail. Markets.com assists through in-platform live support and 24/5 help center.
To stress some points made above, realize that a diverse portfolio and investment strategy will eat into gains as often as it staves off losses. The only way to make big profits most of the time is to make risky moves. If you go all in on a single coin at a given price and it goes up, that is a payday. If it goes down, your investable funds are locked into that crypto (unless you want to sell at a loss). Diverse strategies protect against this, but they will also eat into your potential gains (as it is rare for everything to go up or down at once). Know what you are looking for and know how to weight your portfolio to reflect that.
Coinbase is arguably one of the most popular Bitcoin exchanges online, as well as one of the most widely-used wallet solutions. Based in San Francisco, Coinbase boasts more than seven million users from around the world. One of the biggest features of the Coinbase platform is the simple functionality and ease of use it offers- many leading Bitcoin experts have crowned it as the most newbie-friendly Bitcoin wallet solutions online today.
NullTX stands for Null Transaction. If you use Bitcoin regularly, at some point in time you encountered some sort of anomaly. Whether it be a null transaction, low fee, inputting the wrong address, or even had your wallet hacked. NullTX's mission is to be the #1 information source when it comes to solving your cryptocurrency problems. We provide the latest news in crypto along with educational articles regarding Bitcoin, Ethereum and much much more.
If you are serious about cryptocurrency trading, I strongly recommend finding a mastermind group that suits your skill level and budget so that you can improve your knowledge, expose yourself to less risk, and gain access to news and tips before they hit the mainstream market – this is where the real money is to be made. In my opinion, your best bet is to sign up to use the Notorious Bot as you get a ton of value not only from the bot but also from the Discord channel where you have access to veteran traders and analysts.

The moment you look at the amount of support Tron has been receiving lately, you immediately realize it’s not just yet another blockchain-based platform. Tron’s technology aims to deploy world’s largest FREE content entertainment system. The platform allows anyone to store and own data, and to freely publish their content. Its app “Peiwo” already gathers 10 million enthusiasts and is on the road to become the world’s first TRON-compatible entertainment app. This technology revolves around the following ideology:  All contributions on the network should be of equal quantitative value, the Internet should be decentralized, and data creators should have the absolute ownership of the data. It’s important to realise though that Tron has been pushed like hell by an ambitious marketing department… I have not yet decided if this is a cryptocurrency which will survive but, for a one year hold, it seems a safe bet.
On cryptocurrency mining: As noted, one way to invest in cryptocurrency is via cryptocurrency mining. That is a valid way to start investing if say you love computer gaming and need a new rig and want to invest in small amounts of cryptocurrency while maybe making back some of the cost of the rig (and maybe even breaking even) but that is an entirely different subject. The average investor will want to trade USD for cryptocurrency on an exchange and avoid the complexities and investments of mining. In all cases, unless you already have a good rig with a great graphics card, you’ll need to put down USD upfront anyway.
We know firsthand what it’s like to kick yourself over trades that haven’t worked or worked spectacularly yet not have the desired position size. All you can do is live in the now, the past is over. After all, hindsight is 20-20. It would’ve been nice to go all in when Bitcoin was $600 a year ago and cash out on a high return, but that’s not how it works. Imagine if you bought in 2013 when Bitcoin was 1,000, panicked when it dropped to 200 then sold? Imagine that sting. Hindsight is 20-20, we can’t predict the future. Learn from past successes and failures and apply it moving forward. Here are some tips, in our experience, for new cyrptocurrency investors.
Don’t get itchy fingers (AKA be wary of FOMO buying). As noted above, if you have a strategy, stick with it. Sometimes the market will go nuts, and you’ll see epic gains, and you’ll get FOMO (all humans get FOMO, it takes discipline not to react to it). Selling or buying at that time may make sense, but don’t get nervous and switch up your whole strategy without thinking about it. That is often when bad moves are made. If you are going to buy heavily or sell heavily on a whim, consider taking a step back first.
Keeping up to speed with the news on Cointelegraph, seeking independent ratings on ICOs, and gathering as much information as you can on a coin’s background are essential steps before you decide to make an investment. After making a purchase, monitor any changes in price closely – and consider setting higher and upper limits on when you would want to sell your crypto, mitigating losses in the event of a crash and protecting profits after a surge.
BTC saw a pump last night that only lasted about 10 minutes in terms of the significant part of the move. Since then we have consolidated for 9 hours giving some of the move back. This is still healthy consolidation on the 4 hour and even a potential bull flag. Bulls are trying to hold the back test of 4 hour EMA supports. We are still in a 4 hour lower high ...

Understand blockchain – You don’t need to understand the technical complexities, but a basic understanding will help you respond to news and announcements that may help you predict future price movements. It is essentially a continuously growing list of secure records (blocks). Cryptography secures the interactions and then stores them publicly. They serve as a public ledger, cutting out intermediaries such as banks.
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